Hellenic style

Born according to Homer, born in 900 BCE and dying at 800 BCE, the Athenian Policies are the aesthetic views of an era when architecture was not yet separated from craft, and the appeal of admiration for radiant craftsmanship. It is as if the sun’s glare of all the works of man is described, according to this, the Palace of Alcinoy, by the work of Odyssey. Reflections of skill make the palace sunny, in a moment of admiration the heart of the Odyssey began to beat more, because it does not entice us not with the achievements of architecture, but more with interior decoration, metal decor, painting, woodcarving, textiles. Based on these words, one of the most important legacies of the ancient inhabitants of European civilization can be considered mythology, history, architecture. Hellenic culture begins to emerge on this soil, which will hereafter be considered as one of the main parts of the formation of the Ancient style. Typical features of Hellenic architectural style are the interpretation of individual elements of structures, taking into account the small size of space. The creation of plastic techniques for smaller workmanship and decoration, which contradicts the typical monumentality that prevailed during the 13th-7th centuries BC, is significant. The time of the founding of the vast majority of Hellenic cities, by composition, construction equipment, which was based on the principles of the leading states of the time. They helped to create new architectural forms and construction techniques that were inherent in Ancient Greece in the future. First of all, it is necessary to note the gradual separation of the roof structure and ceiling ceiling, there are rafters, attic, as a result of which the gables of the structures receive characteristic triangles. Innovative at that time was the gable, which had been separated, from the ends of the beams that have the function of overlapping the portico, characterized by their visual expression on the front and back facades, from the clay layer of the wall. These archeological findings complement the ancient texts, namely Homer’s poems are the most complete source of information in the creation of the Hellenic style image. Odysseus, in particular, should also be understood to be a poem by Homer, which, as the Greeks noted, was a rapeseed, translated as a cobbler of songs, and therefore his works were not only personal to his work, but also that he could hear or learn from other popular sources at that time. that is why its descriptions of architecture and interiors are somewhat fragmentary. At the same time it is enough to recreate a certain stylization of the space of private housing of those times. 

So the town house had courtyards where the household premises were located, some of them had a more ancient circle in this form, the courtyard included a garden with trees and a garden with an additional fence. The main room of the house is a megaron, located in the entrance to the courtyard through the house and the portico. The ceiling in the megaron was additionally supported by two or four columns, between them was a hearth, above which formed a hole for smoke, but at the same time the ceiling still had a lot of hood and was black. The rooms in the middle of the house did not have a volumetric decoration on the walls, only murals, the walls were benches decorated with textiles. The house had a separate female part of the gynecological premises, possibly also located on the first and second floors, depending on the preferences of the woman. The house had a bath, bath, cabinets of various sizes, caskets, containers for fertilizers, grain, salted meat. It seems that although the house was of considerable size, the groceries did not have a specific place in the house and were located somewhere else in cabinets, etc. throughout the house. Homer also tells of a slave house where some features of his house and the king’s palace have similar furnishings, the houses have similar courtyard planning, and even the use of various food containers and their locations throughout the house. Thus, we can imagine that the relationship of the slave and the owner did not have a violent outline, rather looked like ordinary working relationships, Homer describes even friendly relations between the slave and his owner.

The beginning of the Hellenic style formation is considered to be the 12th century BC, a time that is very well described in Homer’s poems, and in many respects his achievements and achievements are the main source of information on the study of the Hellenic style. These are times of gradual disappearance of family ties, and the formation of class stratification, which leads to the beginning of the formation of the next Antique style, the slave-owning order of the state, on the democratic basis of citizens. Homer’s poems tell of fraternities, policies, cities that had fortifications, and as a result the population increased, the economic component of the community improved, and a certain structure of government was formed. Each even a relatively small policy was able to organize like a small state, was able to wage war, determine the cultural, industrial, domestic areas. The small size created a close bond in the community, forcing every citizen to be active in political and social activity. Community activity was even more important than family affairs, as successful communities determined successful family gains. It is important to understand now that if the policy was conquered by another policy, all men of the conquered policy were killed and women and children were sold into slavery, although such enrichment also led to more wars between the policies, while stimulating the population for faster development. 

Homer’s poems also testify to the fact that already in the 10th century BC, the final anthropomorphic images of Greek mythology were created, which became the basis and the main source for all ancient art. Mainly for the development of the temple, as a dwelling, a godlike person, a heroon, for each individual god, the premises of his worship. According to the ancient texts, it is also clear that the development of metalworking is most likely a consequence of the knowledge acquired in the Crete of Mycenaean state that existed before you. Archaeological remains of ceramic vessels of those times, on which it is possible to restore the ancient paintings and ornaments, have been found. Some of them are quite characteristic and special, and have developed in the following works of Ancient art. Mostly it is geometric ornaments, and the emergence of ceramic capacities with an oriented pattern, which is the achievement of already oriental connections, the emergence of ionic art techniques. Corinth and the islands of Rhodes and Samos were considered the main centers of artistic activity at that time. Therefore, this development was first of all facilitated by the emergence of more cities that were formed through economic planning and fortification. In many cases, cities were created on the mountain slopes, or on the ruins of previous cities. Although the proximity to the seashore was the most advantageous location for the location, the risk of attacks by pirates, which were abundant in the Aegean Sea, increased significantly. 

During the formation of Hellenic style, the first religious buildings, temples, altars appeared. It becomes clear that during their inception, these structures were planned not for the use of humans but for the gods, however, despite the fact that each family from those images of temples formed an image of their own dwelling in their minds. Maybe even without realizing it, she repeated some of the decoration elements used in the construction of the temples. According to archaeological findings, the foundations and the lower part of the walls were formed of unpainted stone, ordinary sandstone. The base of the house was made of roughly formed slabs, the walls were clayey and had a wooden frame, the interior of the wall was already filled with raw material, and only then the formed wall was protected by a layer of clay, which also increased the bearing properties of the wall. If necessary, they used separate wooden supports for the ceiling, in which case they were mounted on stone slabs. At the same time, there are also stone walls in rooms, made of roughly worked slabs or hewn stones. Some structures had a round, oval or narrow elongated oval layout, it could also be completed by a curvilinear apse, indicating a lack of understanding of how to cover large spaces and also the imperfection of the masonry technique, which had defects in forming the right angles of the structure. 

An example of such structures is the archaeological finds in Orchomenes and Boeotia, typical of Megaron A in Fermos, dating from about 1100-1000 BC. Common in such rooms were the overlapping of the mounds, vines, with the addition of a layer of clay on the island of Crete, in the north were more suitable pitched roofs. Under these conditions, in the 900-800s BC, a frame house was created, which significantly strengthened the structure itself. The frame as the main structural element of the house made it increasingly necessary to move to square planning, which greatly facilitated its creation and use. Dating back to about 1000 BC, the more interesting of these was Megaron B, which is a long rectangular structure 21.4 meters long and 7.3 meters wide. The building with not a straight rear end wall. it was demarcated by transverse walls into three rooms, deep open diarrhea, naos, deep aditon in depth. So it follows that it was probably once a palace that was rebuilt into a temple with a number of wooden pillars along the axis of the structure. The walls at the bottom were lined with small untreated, but well-connected stones with a clay mortar. The floor is decorated with relatively small stone tiles, they are the most interesting part of the building, they were found 18. They are laid out from the north, an ellipse around the house, ending with the southern part of the building. So this particular arrangement of the tiles indicates that they housed wooden pillars that supported the roof, which had been trimmed with a pediment and hatch. This is also evidenced by the remains of ceramic products from the site of archaeological research. This is to say that the building was surrounded by wooden pillars. It is therefore considered to be the first peripheral temple to be of particular importance in the architecture of Antiquity. Equally important is the expression of the columned portico, which was discovered in the buildings of worship. Initially, only the entrance portals of the structure should support such decoration, but over time the columns also appear on the corners of the main facade, which in this case is already a forced solution for maintaining the outer structure of the attic. Thus, the appearance in the construction of additional columns, which had the function of supporting the construction of the portico, provided the detection of the image of the temple, where the columns are part of the roof overlap. So in this way we are watching the formation of one of the most important parts of the building, the future of the Ancient style. Gradually formed peristasis, surrounds the cello of the temple, such a further decision at first bears only practical principles. At that time, the facades of the buildings were not protected at all, they were very vulnerable to the weather in Europe, and the ordinary rain was able to destroy the structure built from the ordinary heart.

It should also be noted that a notable factor for the development of the architecture of the temple was the imaginative reproduction of the spiritual universe, which to the life of the gods is not only underground, in the sea and far beyond the clouds, but also on Mount Olympus. Therefore, if the gods can choose the surface of the earth as a place for their manifestation, then they must encourage the gods to their policies and fraternities, so that they protect their places of residence and, at the same time, the population who worships them. From then on, permanent places of worship of gods, chapels, altars, sculptures, altars and more began to appear. At that time, sometimes a statue hidden in a hollow of a tree or on a branch was a sign of worship of the gods. Gradually, these shrines began to protect them from adverse weather conditions. It is important to note that since then the temple as a place for worshiping the gods was not absolutely necessary, temples in the form of sculptures in trees, caves, rocks, etc. were created in the future even in ancient times. However, the next stage in the development of temple construction is considered to be the creation of a temple out of the ordinary premises, and a pronounced megaron. At the very beginning of the formation, the altar was placed in the center of the room, at the place where the fire is located, in the center, above the open part of the roof. The room where the main sculpture of the god was placed was called whole, a little later the altar changed its location closer to the entrance. In this way, the people who came to worship God did not go further than the entrance of the room, which subsequently allowed for the creation of additional rooms for the storehouses in the temple. These additional rooms were defined as dwellings where godlike creatures or even gods could remain, which is why they began to hide them, and called them darkness, and later they were singled out as propels. From the beginning of the year 800 BCE, the mass construction of temples began, mainly because the pantheon of gods became an official and approved authority. Gods such as Apollo were especially revered and worshiped in many policies. Thus, for the first time at the final stage of the Hellenic style, the temple became the most important building of the policy, it is especially important to note that up to now, the palace of the richest man of the policy was considered the most important. It is in the next temple construction that the main principles of the Hellenic style will be expressed, which will be developed in the following times of ancient Greece. The monumental construction of temples, which were created for the community of the city, largely created the illusion of power of the gods, and the equality of citizens of the polis, and met the aesthetic and religious requirements. On the other hand, it contributed to the gradual accumulation of wealth in certain sections of society.

Temple of Artemis of Orpia, Polis, Sparta 900-800 BCE. For the first time in this temple there are a number of internal pillars, which allows to increase the size of the premises and portals, length 12 meters, width 4.5 meters. The foundation of the temple is made of pebbles, although the walls were made of raw material, but at the beginning of their foundation had rows of vertically mounted sandstone stones, called orphostats. In the middle of the temple, behind the split axis of the temple on stone slabs, stacked at a distance of 1.25 meters from each other, there was apparently a row of wooden pillars. They supported the deflection of an overlap or bast roof. Remnants of stone slabs along some walls also indicate that the wooden pillars additionally supported the roof structure. Such use of wooden pillars, in the future, will very often be used in the temples of the policies of Bass, Tegei, Lus. In these policies, the use of pillars had artistic development, and in ancient times it was used for decorative purposes, which determined the special accessory of the building. Therefore, it is clear that in the future this leads to the typical for the Ancient style, the search for a form of megaron, which will be used in various ancient temples in different ways, and even in houses. 

An important source for presenting the construction of temples are found models in Perahora and Agros, made of ceramics 800 BC. These are rectangular structures with one entrance and a portico on two corner posts. In these models, which were most likely a gift to the gods, you can see the ornamental paintings of the facades, the development of the roof structure and its overlapping, the formation of gables. The peculiarity of these models is the use of pillars not located between the ends of long walls, but forming a separate portico, which is a manifestation of the Hellenic style. It is here that we can understand that the next development of this thought will be to create a portico around the temple to protect most of it from wind and rain. Judging by the paintings, this frame structure had horizontal connections that were to connect the bottom and top of the pillars of the portico with the projections in the walls. The double-glazed roof has a sharp enough angle, and an overlap that forms the interior space on the roof, which can be seen through the opening on the pediment of the ceramic works of art. 

The structural system of the roof had no end at the ends and rested on the roof beams. Triangular openings with a model on the walls, probably used to extract smoke from the fire, the ornament on the walls of the structure is combined with a palm tree. It should also be noted that in some remnants of such ceramic works of art, one can see the oval end of the temple, which forms the apse at the end of the structure. Such a decision also indicates that the temples were most likely to be laid out in sandstone or other stones, which is difficult to process, so the rounded shape at that time was considered more appropriate when using the stone. A rooftop painting, shaped like an inverted boat, most likely indicates that the roof was created from straw or other plants using a clay layer. So it is interesting to determine that in this way ceramic works of art we see not new copies of structures, but most likely already finally formed images of the construction of temples of the area.

The Apollo Carnian Temple on Ferre Island, built around 800 BCE, is an example of a cult house, an example of the rare discovery of an ordinary house rebuilt into a temple. The main facade is formed on the east side, its naos 12,15×7,3 meters in size, with a diameter of 4,3 meters. In front of the ham was a walled square courtyard of the temple, where the tanks were located. On the opposite side of the sanctuary was an annexe of two rooms, the entrance here was located in the side wall of the courtyard, which gave the building a larger appearance of ordinary living quarters.

Dreros Temple on the island of Crete 800 century BC, it is a stone-built temple measuring 10.9×7.2 meters in size, with a fire in the middle of the goal. Two stone bases, located along the axis of the room from the front and rear of the bonfire, indicate that two wooden pillars were needed to support the roof overlap, which also had an opening for free smoke. The temple probably had a horizontal roof overlap and a gable roof. Before the entrance there was a portico with even racks on the corners, which is generally a manifestation of the Hellenic style, since in Antiquity it is almost non-existent.

In the end, the typical Hellenic-style temple was a single-room, single-entry building decorated with projections of walls. These appearances were decorated, forming pilasters-like pillars, called ants. About between the Antes were placed two columns, thus forming one of the first well-known architectural compositions, the temple in the Antes. In many ways, these temples resembled ordinary megarons, which is why they made it difficult and formed the sheets, with columns opposite them. It was then that people realized that the columns protected the facades of the temples from the effects of external weather conditions. More complicated its modification is anfiprostil, the temple in which the three sides are protected by columns. Therefore, in the future, the decision to eliminate the negative factor that led to the gradual demolition of the building was to create a protective columns around the main part of the house. Moreover, the columns also provided shade and coolness in the middle of the temple during the summer. Providing safe shelter from the weather and third-party eyes, the function of retaining and preserving the private belongings of rich people, and even the community, is the starting point. Having emerged in this way, in the further development of the colonnade, it becomes a very powerful and influential visual stimulus of the classical style. Finally, a number of facades appear in the peripheral temple, gradually providing an incredible connection between the building and the environment, resulting in architectural plasticity of the overall perception of the building. Ultimately, this solution visually increases the size of the interior of the building. Where the aggregate of such innovative solutions, in connection with the future needs of ancient society, creates a special form of formation. Such a building is the most important architectural expression of the wishes and preferences of people who lived in the territory, as is known from numerous archaeological studies.

After all, the final stage is the formation of a peripter, a temple that on all sides, protected by columns, took place in 800 BC.

Subsequently, with the development of private real estate and the circulation of goods, the number of slaves increased and the legal norm for their maintenance improved, which contributed to the development of greater social inequality within the community of policies. More and more valuable lands and resources were accumulated in the ownership of the Evpatrids, and small businesses began to lose money and turn into dependent citizens. This creation of power verticals, increased social strife, led to fierce social struggles of citizens, more targeted political and aggressive actions of individual policies, colonization of new, unknown territories began. At the same time, it contributed to the development of the economy, the creation of a single coin, the improvement of all kinds of human activities, rich merchants, artisans, scientists, politicians, philosophers, inventors and more. However, not the perfection of the democratic system in those days increasingly created a gap between rich and poor citizens, the government did not control the number of slaves at all. Thus, gradually, a power of tyranny developed in the government, which for some time would support the development of the Ancient Society of Greece in the future. the petal is made in the “red-figured” technique the work of the “petal with a swallow” by the master Ephronius, the end of 600 BC, the city of Etena.